Taiwan has followed the regulations of the Montreal Protocol to ban the production and importation of CFCs since 1/1/1996. Other ODS are only allowed under the allocation system managed by the EPA. Therefore brining CFCs into the country is considered illegal trade. Bringing HCFCs into the country without a permit is also illegal. Since some ODS substitutes are still expensive, it is alluring for some outlaws to smuggle CFCs. The phasing out of HCFCs consumption in Taiwan is already underway; thereby the substance could be the next item susceptible to smuggling. Despite the fact that Taiwan is not a member of the United Nations, and consequently has difficulty becoming a party to the Montreal Protocol. However, the nation is committed to fulfilling its duty of protecting the environment. We are eager to share with the international community our experience of preventing illegal trade.Since ODS smuggling has never been the problem of one nation, and can be solved effectively, it requires a coordinated effort of the global community.
  1. Seisure of Illegal Trade
  2. Common Smuggling Methods
  3. Measures to Combat Smuggling
  4. Custom Control Case


Since 1996, the incidents of illegal trade of ODS have been detected almost every year. When the Environmental Protection Administration (EPA) was officially authorized as the competent governmental body to integrate rules and controlling programmes for ODS by the fourth amendment of the Air Pollution Control Act on 19th June 2002, the penalty for smuggling ODS into Taiwan was also amended to be harsher to prevent the criminal act. A 1998 survey conducted by Industrial Technology Research Institute on demand for refrigerants in refrigeration and air-conditioning facilities of Taiwan estimated around 14,100 tonnes of CFC-12 were loaded in the operating systems then. Combined with the figures of leakage rate, the possible demand for the substance was calculated to be around 280-1,400 tonnes annually. Some of the demands could be met from the stockpile of 1,000 tonnes of CFC-11 and CFC-12 produced before 1996. But the distribution of stockpiles is managed under a licensing system and is only eligible for certain applicants that regarded as essential. There were 50-100 tonnes of CFC-11 and CFC-12 combined given out from such stockpile every year before 2002. After that, the amount applied for has dropped to around 20 tonnes annually. The gap in the estimated demand and legal supply might be a result of a decrease in market demands, but it may also indicate the illegal supply is still not yet fully detected.