1. Taiwan Government Encourages to Phasing-out of Halon

    Under the Protocol, the production and consumption of Halons have been banned in developed countries since 1 January 1994 except for essential uses. Taiwan has followed the developed countries principle in order to aggressively protect the Ozone layer. The Taiwan EPA set up a Halon Management Center coordinated with the Ministry of National Defense (MND), the Fire Protection sector and other government agencies in 2002. The purpose includes:


    1. Encouraging the accelerated phasing-out of Halon. Halons were introduced to Taiwan as fire-fighting agents in the early 1980s. They quickly replaced many previously accepted fire-fighting products because of their superior fire-fighting characteristics and ease of use. Halons are one of the most ozone-damaging substances in use today. The Taiwan EPA, in order to minimize damage to the ozone layer, has banned the stopped importing of halons at the start of 1995 and encouraged the phasing-out of halons at the same time. In 2008 Taiwan sent 7000 kg of Halon 1301 to Australia's Halon Bank to be destroyed, and the action requires about 4.5 million NTD. (about 150 thousands USD.)
    2. New halon is no longer available in Taiwan and recycled halon is being stored at the Taiwan National Halon Management Center for essential uses only. Only a few industries in Taiwan have been granted exemptions to continue using halon as "essential users" such as the aviation and maritime industries.
    3. Inventoring the Halon supply each year and monitoring its usage. The inventory of Halon carried out in 2002 also included a projected use of Halon for all government departments for essential uses. Based on this projection, approximately 5 tonnes of Halon 1211 and approximately 20 tonnes of Halon 1301 have been set aside as an essential use reserve. This stock will be retained at the MND and made available to end-users as required. The inventory on the projected use will be updated periodically to provide an accurate basis for future policy decisions on Halon.
    4. Reducing the need of Halon year by year, especially for firedrills and non-minitary uses. The MND has stopped its use in the fighter plane (F16) training process, administration offices, and anywhere which can be replaced by dry chemicals or water.

    Taiwan already meets ODS protection regulations under Decision X/7 of the Montreal Protocol. We are now asking that the government should restrict the availability of Halon to essential uses, so that Taiwan will encourage the use of Halon substitutes and minimize the damage of Halon to the ozone layer.

  2. Status of Heat Treatment replacing Methyl Bromide in Taiwan

    In order to lower the demand for methyl bromide, the alterative heat treatment has been collaboratively promoted by the Bureau of Animal and Plant Health Inspection Quarantine of COA and EPA. The Inspection Bureau has assisted the wood industry on the research and development of heat treatment equipment since 2002. The first installed equipment was fuel-heated equipment which requires 2.5 hour in total including the time elevating the temperature to 56? for 1.5 hr Later the electronic-heated equipment was introduced which only to stay at 60? for 30 minutes then heat to 110?.

    Taiwan started to promote heat treatment in April 2004, which was adopted as the main measures for reducing the use of methyl bromide to meet the international standard ISPM15 for quarantine treatment of wood packaging materials in export trade. And in response to the upsurge of fumigation services might be caused by ISPM15, the Bureau of Animal and Plant Health Inspection and Quarantine, Council of Agriculture drafted a set of rules to authorise and to certify the fumigation and heat treatment services conducted by the private entities, which were officially announced in 23rd Apr 2004.

    In 2005, there were 17 private entities received certification for conducting quarantine and pre-shipment fumigation service that using methyl bromide, and 154 entities received certification for using heat treatment. By October 2008, there were only 10 entities that demand fumigation certification, but for the heat treatment has increase to 375 entities. If these private entities have not converted to heat treatment, all will be still using methyl bromide for fumigating wood packaging materials. It is a great help for reducing the number of consumers of Methyl Bromide for QPS by the implementation of heat treatment systems.

    The success of promoting heat treatment could be at the cost effectiveness of the method. Through a series of on-site visits conducted by the Environmental Protection Administration between 2004-2005, finding that majority of the operators of heat treatment plants think there should be no problem of competing with methyl bromide treatment in the market, since treating a batch of about 150~200 pallets required 2~2.5 hours, and the cost could be 25- 30% lower than the methyl bromide treatment. And since many different modal of facilities were developed and produced domestically, the initial costs for the facilities installing could be kept low too, which were around $500,000 ~ 1000,000 New Taiwan Dollars for setting up a typical heat treatment system.

    Our efforts of promoting heat treatment have successfully drawn international attention. During a draft proposal by E.U in OEWG-28?citing the report of TEAP the representative orally praised the achievement of Taiwan that our country successfully lower the consumption of methyl bromide by employing heat treatment for following ISPM 15 Guideline. The recognition encourages us to further cut down the usage and keep protecting the ozone layer.

    Figure 2 List of registered suppliers of wood packing materials facilities in Taiwan

  3. Taiwan Report its ODS Consumption Data to UNEP

    To comply with Montreal Protocol and avoid the punishment of trade limit, as well as maintain the good record of fulfill the international environment protection treaty, since 1992 Taiwan government has reported OSD consumption data to Ozone Secretariat. As before, this year OSD consumption data has been reported to Ozone Secretariat by post and e-mail.

    About the ODS consumption, according to Montreal Protocol control measures, Taiwan CFCs consumption was reduced to zero in 1996. At the same time, HCFCs consumption was frozen. In fact, the HCFCs consumption was 84% (536.707 ODP tonnes) of our baseline (638.156 ODP tonnes) in 1996. the HCFCs consumption was 380.38 ODP tones, which was 59.6% of baseline. Refer to figure 1 for Taiwan HCFC consumption in the past years.

    About ODS production, Taiwan stopped CFCs production in 1996 and HCFCs production in 2006.About ODS import, CFC-114 is only used for small amount of MDI production, which was approve by UNEP as essential use exemption. In 2007, the imported amount of ODS was 10 tonnes. The main imported HCFCs products were HCFC-22 and HCFC-141b, some of them were HCFC-123?HCFC-142b?HCFC-225 and HCFC-124. About ODS export, the exported amount was 10 tonnes (0.55 ODP tonnes) in 2007. Since 1999, the main use of Methyl Bromide has been for QPS use. The imported amount of Methyl bromide was 57.76 tonnes, and among that 23.16 tonnes were for quarantine and 34.6 tonnes were for pre-shipment uses.

    To conclude the above, the HCFCs consumption in 2007 was lower than in 2006, which was 59.6% of baseline. It is clear to see that Taiwan endeavored to control the ODS consumption. However, a breakthrough is needed to achieve 75% reduction.

  4. EPA, Customs and Coast Guard organized "Montreal Protocol Control Substances Recognition Training Course"

    As ODS control measures in Montreal Protocol are getting stricter, smuggling market is on its increase. This would seriously threaten the effect of protection ozone layer from party members. Since 1995 Taiwan has been started to seize ODS smuggling cases. The total amount of ODS was more than 1000 ODP tonnes, 879 ODP tonnes have been destroyed. Among them, CFC-12 amount was the largest, Halon was the second. As HCFCs refrigerant is going to be restricted for uses, the smuggling cases of this substance may increase as well.

    Since 1996 EPA has invited Custom and Coast Guard Administration to organize Training course, which could strengthen custom officer investigation ability to ODS. The event "Montreal Protocol Control Substances Recognition Training Course" was held at Southern Coastal Patrol office, Kaohsiung, on 29th of October 2008. There were about 70 custom officers participated. In November, a training course for Keelung and Kaohsiung custom officers will be held. The content of the course will be the introduction to ozone layer and ultraviolet light and basic knowledge of Montreal Protocol regulations, as well as use of tools and equipments for investigation purposes, and investigation experience sharing. During the training, the whole course will be filmed and make to e-learning material. This material could be used for implementation and education purposes, and could be used for the custom officers who are unable to attend the course. From the education training for the front line custom officers, it will reinforce the ODS investigation work, and threaten the smuggling activities and enhance the effects of protection ozone layer.

  5. EPA Launched New Website in Englsih for Ozone Layer Protection in Taiwan

    Taiwan EPA launched new version of English website of "ozone layer protection" on 1st December. The new website replacing the original one includes complete information about the efforts and achievements by Taiwan regarding to protecting ozone layer and abiding to the rules for non-Annex 5 countries to the Montreal Protocol. The information in this website divides into six main areas: news, domestic efforts (including laws and regulations, customs control and awareness education), international participation (including attending Montreal meetings and submitting consumption data to Secretariat), statistics, brochure and links. There are also practical links to Taiwan EPA, UVI forecast, and UNEP Ozone Secretariat on the main page. Please visit http://www.saveoursky.org.tw/common/mainen.asp for more information.


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Directed by ︰epa Environmental Protection Administration, R.O.C. ( Taiwan )
Edited by ︰itri Industrial Technology Research Institute