1. Ozone Depleting Substance Consumption in Taiwan in 2012

    To comply with the Montreal Protocol, the Taiwan government has been reporting ODS consumption data to the Ozone Secretariat of UNEP since 1992.


    Taiwan has been abiding by the Montreal Protocol's control measures; its CFCs consumption was reduced to zero and HCFCs consumption has been reducing since 1996. The HCFCs consumption baseline was counted as 638.156 ODP tonnes in 1996 and reduced to 383 ODP tonnes in 2004. The HCFCs consumption in 2012 in Taiwan was 153.093 ODP tonnes, accounting for 25% of the HCFCs consumption baseline. It shows that Taiwan is still complying with the Montreal Protocol's control measures for developed countries. One reason Taiwan was able to fulfill its reduction commitments under the Montreal Protocol is that the Taiwan EPA has executed the regulation for HCFCs to suspend certain specific uses step by step, including the ban of using HCFC-141b on PU foam blowing and electronics cleaning. And after 2010, the Taiwan government has banned the use of HCFC-22 as refrigerants for production of window-mounted air conditioners as well as the split type air conditioners below 7.1 kW.

    The ODS producer in Taiwan ceased production of CFCs in 1996 and HCFCs in 2006. In 2012, the imported HCFCs consisted of 152.020 ODP tonnes of HCFC-22 and 2.8 ODP tonnes of HCFC-123 and 0.088 ODP tonnes of HCFC-124. The exported HCFCs was 1.815 ODP tonnes of HCFC-22. Since 1999, methyl bromide has been allowed to be imported and used only for QPS purposes in Taiwan. In 2012, the amount of imported methyl bromide was 18.9 ODP tonnes. Comparing to 2011, there was 11.7 ODP tonnes reductions in 2012. The reason for the decrease in methyl bromide importation is that the Taiwan EPA has executed the quota allocation control for methyl bromide and effectively promoted alternatives by the Taiwan Council of Agriculture, Executive Yuan (COA) and the EPA.


    Fig 1. HCFCs Consumption in Taiwan


    Fig 2. HCFCs production and importation in Taiwan


    Fig 3. Methyl Bromide importation in Taiwan

  2. Analysis of Hydrochlorofluorocarbons Use in 2012

    According to Article 16 of the “Regulation for Consumption Management of Hydrochlorofluorocarbons” in Taiwan, companies allocated with HCFCs quotas shall sunmit records of their actual HCFCs use to the Taiwan EPA by the end of the first month of each season. In 2012, there were 66 allocated companies of which 56 were industrial users and 10 were importers. The 2012 declarations from industrial users indicated that applications for refrigerant use comprised the highest percentage, reaching 87% (67,910 ODP kg) of the total HCFCs used. Second was applications in foam blowing at 13% (10,513 ODP kg).

    Figure 1 lists the increase and decrease of all the HCFCs uses every year from 2003 to 2012. It can be seen that cleaning applications showed a significant decrease each year. Currently there are few companies that directly purchase a cleaning agent such as AK-225 from suppliers. The use of foam blowing also decreased in phases since the regulation of PU foam blowing in 2004, and until 2012 only two companies still used foam blowing. In addition, refrigerant use decreased each year since the regulations took effect.


    Figure 1. HCFCs Uses in Taiwan from 2003 to2012


    In Taiwan, foam blowing was mostly done using HCFC-141b, with minor use of HCFC-22. Since January 1, 2004 Taiwan prohibited the use of HCFC-141b in foam blowing processes including producing soft and semi-rigid PU, non heat-insulation PU and heat-insulation PU at normal temperature. The use of HCFC-141b in producing low temperature heat-insulation PU for refrigerators was prohibited since 2008 in Taiwan. In addition, the use of HCFC-141b in making low temperature heat-insulation PU for freezer board and all applications was also prohibited since 2011. The statistics for 2012 indicated that there were only two companies that declared HCFC-22 use for PS foam blowing. The use amount was 10,513 ODP kg, showing little change  from the amounts of previous years.

    The total use amount of refrigerants, declared by refrigerant user companies, was 67,909.73 kg. The major HCFCs used as refrigerants was HCFC-22 and minor ones were HCFC-123 and R408A blend refrigerants (R-22/R-143a/R-125, 47/46/7% by weights). According to the information declared by companies, refrigerants for newly manufactured equipment amounted to 16,897.46 ODP kg (comprising 25% of the total refrigerant use), for newly assembled equipment it was 2,482.34 ODP kg (4%), and for repair and maintainence it was 48,529.94 ODP kg (72%). The details are shown in Table 1.

    Table 1. Distribution HCFCs Refrigerant Use in 2012



    As shown in Table 1, 72% of the total HCFCs used amount was for repair and maintenance. Of the total 48,529.94 ODP kg in this category, the top application was for refrigeration during transportation (such as trucks, fishing vessels), the second was for centralized air conditioners/chillers, and others were used in assembling refrigeration facilities and showcases. HCFC-22 was the main HCFCs used for maintenance.

    According to the HCFCs control schedule of Taiwan, the annual consumption level of HCFCs shall not exceed 10% of the baseline consumption after 2015, and shall not exceed 0.5% after 2020. Meanwhile, HCFCs use is limited to maintenance purposes for refrigeration equipment that is still in use. The amount of HCFCs used for maintainence in 2012 was 48,530 ODP kg, which was 7.6% of the HCFCs consumption baseline level of 638,156 OPD kg and was 1987 ODP kg less than the amount in 2012 as shown in Table 3. There was a 2,983 ODP kg decrease in applications in centralized air conditioners/chillers. One possible reason was that companies were gradually phasing out the old machine and replacing them with new ones with new refrigerants. Another possible reason was the economic slow-down that reduced the maintenance applications of companies. There was an increase of 1,424 ODP kg use for refrigeration in transportation due to a large amount used for fishing vessel maintenance. In order to satisfy control measures, we suggest that consumers check for leakages and conduct necessary maintenance to reduce the amount of HCFC-22 used.

  3. Quota Allocations for Methyl Bromide in QPS Applications for the Second Half of 2013 and Methyl Bromide Use Statistics for 2012

    Based on Articles 5 and 10 of the “Regulation for Management of Methyl Bromide” published by the Environmental Protection Administration, Executive Yuan(EPA) in 2003, methyl bromide importers and users for quarantine and pre-shipment (QPS) purposes shall apply to the central competent authority for importation and use permits by the end of February each year, through claiming the estimated amount needed for the second half of the calendar year. The same process shall be repeated by the end of each August for the first half of the following calendar year.

    According to the regulations, the Taiwan EPA convened with professionals to decide methyl bromide quota allocations in May based on the applicants’ declared documents. During the meeting, not only the sale and purchase documents from importers and users were reviewed, but the fumigation certificates, amounts of methyl bromide used and stock status were also discreetly reviewed and verified. Based on the results of the meeting, the Taiwan EPA subsequently finalized and approved to allocate 12,500 kg of 100% w/t and 9,139.2 kg of 98% w/t methyl bromide for applications in the second half of 2013. Compared to the same period of the previous year, the 100% methyl bromide allocation was decreased by 6 tonnes; due to economic slow-down, the importers decreased the importation amount by 2,797 kilograms; thus, the users’ stock level was at the lowest level by 6 tonnes in the second half of 2012. Therefore, the 98% methyl bromide allocation for the second half of 2013 was reduced by 1,386 kilograms to reflect slow market and stocking conditions.

    Analyzing the users’ declaration documents, the total methyl bromide using amount used in 2012 was 44,589 kilograms, which was 2,764 kilograms less than in 2011. There was 38% of methyl bromide, or 16,941 kilograms, used for fumigation of wooden packing. The second major application was for imported fruits and vegetables, which comprised 11,940 kilograms (27%). The using amount for woods and wooden products was 8,558 kilograms (19%). In Bureau of Animal and Plant Health Inspection and Quarantine(BAPHIQ), the using amount was 21,980 kilograms in 2012. The main application was imported fruits and vegetables’ fumigation, which comprised 11,940 kilograms (54%). The secondary major application was imported woods and wooden products’ fumigation, which comprised 2,690 kilograms (12%).

    Meanwhile, the Taiwan EPA called on all importers and users of methyl bromide to declare on schedule their data on importation, sales and actual use to comply with the “Regulation for Management of Methyl Bromide” for QPS purposes only. The users should record the actual amounts used monthly by each fumigation category in monthly log-books. It is also noted that users should avoid unnecessary methyl bromide fumigation if feasible alternatives are available. Pest control companies should also remind their clients to avoid the unnecessary methyl bromide fumigation conditions listed in the commercial contract with their overseas trading partners, in order to protect the global environment and ozone layer.


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Directed by ︰epa Environmental Protection Administration, R.O.C. ( Taiwan )
Edited by ︰itri Industrial Technology Research Institute