1. Ozone Depleting Substance Consumption in Taiwan in 2013

    To adhere to the Montreal Protocol, the Taiwanese government has been reporting ODS consumption data to the Ozone Secretariat of UNEP since 1992.


    Taiwan has been abiding by the Montreal Protocol's control measures; its CFC consumption was reduced to zero and HCFC consumption has been decreasing since 1996. The HCFC consumption baseline was counted as 638.156 ODP tonnes in 1996 and was reduced to 383 ODP tonnes in 2004. The HCFC consumption in 2013 in Taiwan was 155.424 ODP tonnes, accounting for 25% of the HCFCs consumption baseline. This shows that Taiwan is still adhering to the Montreal Protocol's control measures for developed countries. One of the reasons that Taiwan is able to fulfill its own reduction commitments based on the Montreal Protocol is that the Taiwan EPA has executed the HCFC regulations and suspend specific uses step by step, including the ban of using HCFC-141b on electronics cleaning and PU foam blowing, the use of HCFC-22 as refrigerants for producing window-mounted air conditioners as well as the split type air conditioners below 7.1 kW. Starting from 2016, the EPA will implement the ban on using HCFC-22 as a refrigerant for new refrigeration units and air conditioners.

    ODS producers in Taiwan ceased the production of CFCs in 1996 and HCFCs in 2006. In 2013, the imported HCFCs consisted of 153.094 ODP tonnes of HCFC-22, 3.6 ODP tonnes of HCFC-123, 0.022 ODP tonnes of HCFC-124 and 0.193 ODP tonnes of HCFC-225. Exported HCFCs consisted of 1.485 ODP tonnes of HCFC-22.

    Methyl bromide has been allowed to be imported and used only for QPS purposes in Taiwan since 1999. In 2013, the amount of imported methyl bromide was 34 ODP tonnes. The decrease in methyl bromide importation was due to the EPA’s implementation of the quota allocation control for methyl bromide and promotion of alternatives effectively together with the Taiwan Council of Agriculture, Executive Yuan (COA).


    30a 1

    Figure 1. HCFC consumption in Taiwan


    30a 1

    Figure 2. HCFC-22 and HCFC-141b consumption in Taiwan


    30a 1

    Figure 3. Methyl Bromide importation in Taiwan


  2. Phase-down Schedule of HCFCs in Taiwan

    In order to follow the control measures in the Montreal Protocol, the Taiwan government initiated a ban on HCFC consumption in 1996 and has implemented the “Regulations for Consumption Management of HCFCs” (HCFC regulations) to accomplish the goals including 35% baseline reduction in 2004, 75% reduction in 2010, 90% reduction in 2015 and 99.5% reduction in 2020. In the regulations, the Taiwan EPA step by step ceased allocating HCFC allowances and prohibited use of HCFCs in specific applications.


    As of the end of 2011, the use of HCFCs has been prohibited for certain applications, including HCFCs in mist propellants, HCFC-141b in cleaning processes, HCFC-141b in all PU foam blowing and HCFC-22 in producing window type (including split type) air conditioners below 7.1kW. Aiming to reach the targets and successively phase out HCFCs by 2030, an amendment of the Regulation for Consumption Management of HCFCs has come into effect in 2015. The quotas for using HCFCs in foam blowing and HCFC-22 in producing new air conditioners or refrigeration units were ceased to be allocated after 2015, and applications using HCFC-22 will be prohibited after January 1, 2016. The prohibition schedule for HCFC applications is shown in the following table.


    Table 1. The prohibition schedule for HCFC applications in Taiwan

     

    Prohibition Application of HCFCs

    Implementation Date


    Using HCFC-141b in manufacturing electronic appliances for information technology and non-electronic appliances

     

    1 January 2004

    Using HCFC-141b in manufacturing soft and semi-rigid polyurethane foaming plastic, non-insulation purpose polyurethane foaming plastic, insulation purpose polyurethane foaming plastic

     


    Using HCFC-141b in manufacturing electronic and communication products

     

    1 January 2008


    Using HCFC-141b in manufacturing PU foaming board for refrigeration units

     


    Using HCFCs as spray agent

    1 January 2010


    Using HCFC-141b in manufacturing satellite communication products

     

    1 January 2011

    Using HCFC-141b in manufacturing PU foaming board for refrigeration units

     

    Filling HCFC-22 refrigerant in manufacturing window-type or split-type air conditioners below 7.1 kW

     


    Using HCFCs as foaming agents

     

    1 January 2016

    Filling HCFC-22 refrigerant in manufacturing new air conditioners and refrigeration units

     


    Using HCFCs as cleaning solvent

     

    1 January 2020

    Filling HCFC refrigerants in manufacturing new air conditioners and refrigeration units

     


  3. Analysis for HCFCs Use in Taiwan

    In 2013, the Taiwan EPA set HCFC limits for 63companies, of which 53 were industrial users, 3 fewer compared to 2012, and 10 were suppliers, the same number as in 2012. The users are companies that use HCFCs for equipment manufacturing and maintenance, and suppliers are companies that import or manufacture HCFCs for supplying the users or other dealers. The numbers of companies in recent years are shown in Figure 1.


    According to the analysis of the 2013 declarations from the users (the data from the suppliers and their customers are not included), the total HCFCs used was 71,110 ODP kg, among which the amount in refrigerant applications comprises the highest percentage at approximately 84.5% (60,080 ODP kg). The second highest was for applications in foam blowing at 15.5% (11,030 ODP kg), as shown in Table 1. The growth and decline of HCFC usage in recent years are shown in Figure 1.


    Table 1. 2013 HCFC application categories of allocated companies

    Unit:ODP kg

     

     

    HCFC-22

    HCFC-141b

    HCFC-123

    R-408A

    Subtotal

    %

    Refrigerant

    57,448

    0

    2,379

    253

    60,080

    84.5%

    Foam Blowing

    11,030

    0

    0

    0

    11,030

    15.5%

    Subtotal

    68,478

    0

    2,379

    253

    71,110

    100.0%

    %

    96.3%

    0.0%

    3.3%

    0.4%

    100.%

     


    alt

    Figure 1. The growth and decline of HCFC use in Taiwan


    Formerly, HCFC-141b had been used for cleaning in electronics manufacturing. Its use for cleaning in manufacturing processes has been prohibited since 2011. Currently there are few companies directly purchasing HCFC-225ca/cb (known as AK-225) from the suppliers for cleaning purposes. In 2013, 265.45 ODP kg of HCFC-225ca/cb were used, 104.58 ODP kg less than in 2012.


    In Taiwan, foam blowing was mostly done using HCFC-141b, with minor use of HCFC-22. The use of HCFC-141b in PU foam blowing was ended in 2011. As of 2013, only two companies were still using HCFC-22 in PS foam blowing, using 11,030 ODP kg. The HCFC regulations in Taiwan has also ended allocations from 2015 and will prohibit the use of any sort of HCFC applications in foam blowing from 2016 onwards.


    The total amount of refrigerants used in 2013, declared by 51 refrigerant users, was 60,079.92 ODP kg. The major HCFCs used as refrigerants were HCFC-22, and minor ones are HCFC-123 and R-408A blended refrigerants (R-22/R-143a/R-125, 47/46/7% by weight). According to the declared data, refrigerants for charging new products (equipment) amounted to 14,412.53 ODP kg (comprising 23.99% of the total refrigerant use); for newly constructed facilities it was 2,412.04 ODP kg (4.01%); and for repair and maintenance it was 43,255.35 ODP kg (72.0%). The details are shown in Figure 2.


    alt

    Figure 2. The use of HCFC refrigerants in 2013


    The use amount has reduced in the recent two years. The decreasing trend appears mainly because the users and suppliers have gradually switched to the alternatives of HFC-mixtures (including R-410A, R-404A, R-134a, R-407C, etc.). According to the HCFC regulations, the allocation for new products and facilities has been ended since 2015, and all the applications of HCFC-22 will be prohibited from 2016 onward except for repair and maintenance uses.


  4. The Taiwan EPA Finalizes Quota Allocations for Methyl Bromide in QPS Applications for the First Half of 2015

    According to the regulatory norms of the Montreal Protocol, the consumption amount of methyl bromide should have been reduced to zero as of 2005 in developed countries, and as of 2015 in developing countries. However, the amount of methyl bromide used for quarantine and pre-shipment (QPS) is not included in the calculation of consumption. At present, most countries can still produce and import methyl bromide for QPS purposes except the members of the EU which stopped the use of methyl bromide for QPS on March 18th, 2010. Based on Articles 5 and 10 of the "Regulations for Management of Methyl Bromide" published by the Environmental Protection Administration, Executive Yuan (EPA) in 2003, methyl bromide importers and users for QPS purposes shall apply to the EPA for permits for the second half of the year by the end of February of that year, and provide the estimated amount needed and related documents.

    The Taiwan EPA convened with experts on October 21, 2014 to allocate methyl bromide quotas for the first half of 2015. During the meeting, not only were the sale and purchase documents from importers and users reviewed, but the fumigation certificates, amounts of methyl bromide used and stock status were also closely reviewed and verified. Based on the reviewed results, the Taiwan EPA subsequently finalized and approved to allocate 20,500.0 kg of 100% w/t and 6,707.8 kg of 98% w/t methyl bromide for applications in the first half of 2015. Figure 1 shows the historical quota allocations for methyl bromide in QPS applications in Taiwan. The amounts of all the three recent phases are approximately 28 tonnes.
     

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    Figure 1. Historical quota allocations for methyl bromide in QPS use

     

    Methyl bromide is one of the ozone-depleting substances regulated by the EPA, and the Montreal Protocol defines the pre-shipment applications as those non-quarantine applications applied within 21 days prior to export to meet the official requirements of the importing country or existing official requirements of the exporting country. Official requirements are those which are performed by, or authorized by, a national plant, animal, environmental, health or stored product authority. Hence, the Taiwan EPA called on all importers and users of methyl bromide to declare their data for importation, sales and actual use on schedule, complying with the "Regulations for Management of Methyl Bromide" for QPS purposes only. The users should record the actual amounts used monthly by each fumigation category in monthly log-books, and also list the names, packing materials, container number and size, the concentration and temperature of the fumigation process for the products that are fumigated. It is also noted that users should avoid unnecessary methyl bromide fumigation if feasible alternatives are available. In addition, workers should pay attention to the safety at the time of fumigation or when the container doors open.


  5. The Destruction System for ODS in Taiwan

    In order to meet the requirement of the Montreal Protocol, Taiwan has endeavored to reduce the consumption of Ozone Depleting Substances (ODSs), and actively forbid the import and manufacture of them. Upon considering their depletion of the ozone layer, the use limits of ODSs and Halon extinguishers have been proposed in Taiwan. As for the wasted ODSs such as the refrigerants from the waste air conditioners and the unused Halon surplus, if it is not recycled or destroyed properly, the ODSs will emit to the atmosphere and deplete the ozone layer. The problem of destroying surplus ODSs hence is generated.


    For a proper destruction process, the surplus ODSs may need to be sent to the foreign destruction center. However, it will result in high costs and difficult transnational transportation. In order to solve the problem, Taiwan EPA has studied and developed the destruction equipment for ODSs and fluoride gases. The destruction rate was verified to be over 99.99%, which can comply with the requirements of the local waste gas emission regulation and international suggested measures in the Montreal Protocol. In addition, the process could save much water and the recycled fluoride can be turned into calcium fluoride sludge to substitute fluorite in a molten iron desulfurization process after the destruction process. Through the efforts of the EPA, Taiwan has established the domestic destruction techniques for ODSs, and can provide both domestic and international users with relevant consulting services to achieve the goals of ODSs reduction. The specification of the equipment is shown in the following table.
     

     

    alt

    Abatement Type

    Plasma-Water recycle

    Max Flow Rate

    100~300 LPM

    Working Temp.

    Max up to 10,000℃

    Destroy ODS Rate

    > 99%

    Dimensions

    W900×D1000×H1970 (mm)