1. Ozone Depleting Substance Consumption in Taiwan in 2015

    Adhering to the Montreal Protocol, Taiwan’s government has been reporting ODS consumption data to the Ozone Secretariat of UNEP since 1992. According to Taiwan’s ODS consumption record, CFC consumption has been reduced to zero and HCFC consumption has been decreasing since 1996. The HCFC consumption baseline was counted as 638.156 ODP tonnes in 1996. The HCFC consumption was reduced to 65% of the HCFCs consumption baseline (382.51 ODP tonnes) in 2004 and 25% (152.56 ODP tonnes) in 2010, respectively. As Taiwan abides by the Montreal Protocol's control measures, the HCFC consumption in 2015 was reduced to 59.35 ODP tonnes, accounting for 15% of the HCFC consumption baseline.

    Taiwan fulfills its own reduction commitments based on the Montreal Protocol through executing the HCFC regulations and suspending specific applications for using HCFCs step by step, including the ban of using HCFC-141b on electronics cleaning and foam blowing, the use of HCFC-22 as refrigerants for producing air conditioners and refrigeration after 2016, only using HCFC-123 in producing centrifugal chillers and using HCFCs in maintenance of existing air conditioners and refrigeration.

    Producers of ODS in Taiwan ceased the production of CFCs in 1996 and that of HCFCs in 2006. In 2015, the imported HCFCs consisted of 58.039 ODP tonnes of HCFC-22, 1.94 ODP tonnes of HCFC-123, and 0.031 ODP tonnes of HCFC-225. Exported HCFCs consisted of 0.66 ODP tonnes of HCFC-22. The historical data of HCFCs consumption is shown in Figure 1.

    Methyl bromide has only been allowed to be imported for QPS purposes in Taiwan since 1999. In 2015, the amount of imported methyl bromide was 19.03 ODP tonnes. The decrease in methyl bromide importation was due to the Taiwan EPA’s implementation of the quota allocation control for methyl bromide and the promotion of alternatives effectively together with the Taiwan Council of Agriculture, Executive Yuan (COA). The importation data of methyl bromide is shown in Figure 2.


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    Figure 1. HCFCs consumption in Taiwan


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    Figure 2. Methyl Bromide importation in Taiwan


  2. The Taiwan EPA Finalizes Quota Allocations for Methyl Bromide in QPS Applications for the First Half of 2017

    According to the regulatory norms of the Montreal Protocol, the consumption amount of methyl bromide has been reduced to zero as of 2005 in developed countries, and as of 2015 in developing countries. However, the amount of methyl bromide used for quarantine and pre-shipment (QPS) is not included in the calculation of consumption. At present, most countries can still produce and import methyl bromide for QPS purposes except the members of the EU which stopped the use of methyl bromide for QPS on March 18, 2010.

    In response to international regulatory requirements and Articles 5 and 10 of the Regulations for Management of Methyl Bromide published by the Environmental Protection Administration, Executive Yuan (EPA) in 2003, methyl bromide importers and users shall apply to the EPA for permits for QPS purposes for the first half of the previous year by the end of August of that year, and provide the approved uses data, apply estimated need amount and accompany related documents.

    The EPA convened with experts on October 21, 2016 to review and examine those documents from applicants for issuing uses and import permit of methyl bromide. The examining principles included the validity of fumigation certificates, uses data, export processing documents, validity of container size. If any of the required documents is short, the use permit will be reduced. Moreover, if the applied estimated need amount is lower than the approved use amount, the issued permit shall be equal to the applied amount; if the declared use amount is zero or lower than the amount in stock, none will be issued. At this time, the Bureau of Animal and Plant Health Inspection and Quarantine, BAPHIQ, or local fumigation companies did not apply for 100% w/t methyl bromide for stocks are sufficient. Therefore, the EPA subsequently finalized and approved to issue 4,879.8 kg of 98% w/t methyl bromide for applicants for the first half of 2017. Figure 1 shows the historical issued permits of methyl bromide for QPS in Taiwan.

    In order to understand methyl bromide usage information, the EPA called on all importers and users to truthfully fill out "The Table of Methyl Bromide Use Record," so the contact details of related clients listed in the table can therefore be reviewed by the EPA at the next declaration and permit application. In addition, The EPA called on all importers and users of methyl bromide to use methyl bromide sparingly and use other alternatives as much as possible. For example, the musical instruments transported to other countries for performances or contests do not need to use methyl bromide for fumigation. If the import of goods to other countries requires relevant documents (such as CoC, Certificate of conformity), companies can consult with experts in the BAPHIQ and choose a proper alternative method for quarantine treatment. For example, second-hand clothing can be disinfected with ingot-shaped PH3 fumigation, or fumigation through heating with formalin for 17 hours, or X-ray irradiation. Finally, workers should pay attention to safety when fumigating and opening the containers.


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    *H1: first half of year, H2: second half of year

    Figure 1. Historical quota allocations for methyl bromide in QPS applications

  3. HCFC Quota Allocations for 2017 and Use in Taiwan

    Since 1989, Taiwan has abided by the Montreal Protocol and has phased out the use of controlled chemicals step by step. The “Regulations for Management of HCFC Consumption”, hereinafter referred to as the HCFC regulations, was announced by the Taiwan Environmental Protection Administration, Executive Yuan (EPA) in 2003, which allows users and suppliers to apply for HCFC quotas in specific applications. The HCFC regulations have been amended three times; the latest version was amended and published in October 2014.

    According to the HCFC regulations, the allocated quota limit in each year from 2015-2019 is set at 63,816 ODP kilograms, which is 10% of the national consumption baseline (638,156 ODP kg), the same as the mandate specified in the Article 2 in the Montreal Protocol. After setting a reserve 5% for military and other national emergencies, the actual quota for the first half in 2017 and pre-estimated allocations for the whole of 2017 was calculated and distributed to users and importers. The EPA called a meeting on October 28, 2016 and finalized the HCFC quota allocations for 2017. In total, 31,869 ODP kg were allocated to 38 users and 28,756 ODP kg were allocated to 10 distributing suppliers. The historical data of HCFC quota allocations is shown in Figure 1.


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    2017* : Pre-estimated quota allocation, the actual number will be calculated after the allocation meeting in April 2017

    Figure 1. Historical data of HCFC quota allocations


    According to the HCFC regulations, the EPA has banned use of all kinds of HCFCs for foam blowing applications, charging HCFC-22 in new refrigeration and A/C products and facilities, and using HCFC-141b as cleaning solvent, but the new equipment still can be charged with HCFC-123 before year 2020. The HCFC-22 are not allowed to be used in new production lines and can only be used for repair and maintenance purposes. Violators may be punished by a fine of up to 100,000 NTD, and may be disqualified for HCFC quota allocations by the EPA. In addition, according to Article 13, the users may not engage in HCFC distribution businesses. In addition to fines, the EPA may also cancel the violators’ qualifications for HCFC quota allocations.

    According to the HCFC regulations, the users should report the amounts they use, import and purchase every season (before the end of January, April, July and October). In 2015, the Taiwan EPA allocated HCFC quotas for 54 companies, of which 44 were industrial users and 10 were suppliers. The analysis of the 2015 declarations from the users shows that the total HCFCs used was 41,101 ODP kg which was about 25,782 ODP kg less than in 2014. The amount in refrigerant applications comprises the highest, among which the most-used HCFC was HCFC-22, and the least was HCFC-123. The growth and decline of HCFC use in recent years is shown in Figure 2.


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    Figure 2. The growth and decline of HCFC use in Taiwan

    According to the declared data, refrigerants for repair and maintenance amounted to 33,943 ODP kg (82.6%); for charging new products (equipment) it was 6,743 ODP kg (comprising 16.4% of the total refrigerant use); and for newly constructed facilities it was 415 ODP kg (1 %). The HCFC regulations allow HCFC-22 for charging new A/C products in 2015, therefore the HCFCs used in new products and newly constructed facilities comprises both HCFC-123 and HCFC-22.


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    Figure 3. 2015 HCFC application distributions of allocated companies

    Among the refrigerants for new products and facilities, central air conditioner production and new facility construction comprise the highest percentage, at approximately 13.6% of total HCFCs used. The second highest was for packaged air conditioners at 2.5%, followed by refrigeration assembling facilities and showcases at 0.1. The details are shown in Table 1. It also shows that the use of HCFC-22 in window type or split type A/C was zero in 2015 (it was 52 ODP tonnes in 2010) due to the end of HCFC-22 allocations in 2010 and the ban on HCFC-22 in 2011 for A/C products smaller than 7.1kW.

    In addition, refrigerants for repair and maintenance was 33,943 ODP kg, which is 8,940 ODP kg less than the amount in 2014, and was still dominated by HCFC-22. Along with the ban on charging new products and facilities with HCFC-22, the demand for HCFC-22 for repair and maintenance is expected to decrease. However, the life expectancy of existing equipment is at least eight years, and the market demand of HCFC-22 refrigerant is projected to last for a few years before declining.

    The distribution of HCFC refrigerants for repair and maintenance in 2015 is shown in Figure 4. Refrigeration in transport (vehicles and boats) comprises the most, mainly because fishing boats require more refrigerant to refill their equipment due to long working times at sea as well as keeping some in reserve. Other issues are the central air conditioning and refrigerated display cabinets, which often need more refill as maintenance due to the difficulties of leakage control. For such equipment that needs more refill amounts, a well-developed and easy-to-follow maintenance procedure and training should be able to gradually reduce the leaking and demand for refilling.

     Table 1. The distribution of HCFC refrigerant use in 2015

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    Figure 4. The growth and decline of HCFC refrigerants for repair and maintenance